Showing posts from 2021Show all

Sport Awards in India

Arjuna Awards: The Arjuna Awards were established instituted in 1961. To be eligible for the Award, a sportsperson should have had not only good performance consistently for the previous three years at the international level with excellence for the year for which the …

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Bharat Nirman Programme

Bharat Nirman Programme  is a four-year business plan to develop rural infrastructure. The government of India launched a time-bound plan under Bharat Nirman in 2005 for implementation during four year period, 2005-2009. The six components included under this rur…

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National Statistical Commission (NSC)

The Government of India ordered the setting up of a permanent National Statistical Commission (NSC) on 1st June 2005 on the recommendation of the C. Rangarajan Commission. The National Statistical Commission assumed charge on 12th July 2006. Professor Suresh Tendulkar …

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Demand Forecasting

Demand forecasting is a systematic process involving anticipation of demand for the commodity or services of a company in the future under certain competitive forces and uncontrollable forces. According to Evan J Douglas . "Demand forecasting is an estimate of sal…

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Strategic Management

Strategic management deals with the long-term plans and actions of an organization. These decisions arrive in the light of both internal and external factors that affect the working of an organization. The management basically evaluates the possible opportunities and s…

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Corporate Social Responsibility

It is philanthropy and a set of activities that corporates exercise in order to perform their moral duties. It is a humanitarian exercise in order to perform their moral duties. It is humanitarian, community work or social work done by enterprises. It is the relationsh…

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Industrial Rrelations

Industrial Relations (IR) refers to all types of relationships between all the parties concerned with industry, i.e. employees, employers, trade union, management and the State Government who regulate these relations. Thus, IR is concerned with the relationship between…

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National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO)

The National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) carries out socio-economic surveys, undertakes fieldwork for the Annual Survey of Industries and follow-up surveys of the economic census, sample checks on area enumeration and crop estimation surveys and prepares the urb…

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Organisational Structure

The term organizational structure reveals an established pattern of relationships among the constituent parts of the organization. It prescribes the relationships among various activities and various positions in an organization. It is nothing but a chart of relationsh…

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Comparison between the Supreme Court and High Court

Supreme Court High Court The Supreme Court is the Federal Court. Its only seat is located in Delhi. Its bench can be established at other places also, but so far it has not been established. There is a provision for a High Court in each state and each Union T…

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Corporate Restructuring

Corporate restructuring includes various forms of collaborations, such as takeovers, mergers and acquisitions, spin-offs, leveraged buyouts etc. It refers to an alteration or change in the asset mix, ownership, business mix and alliance with another company with an aim…

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Landmarks in the Development of the Indian Constitution

Regulating Act, 1773: It made a provision of Supreme Court at Fort William, Calcutta, comprising 0one Chief justice and three other judges. It prohibited the company's servanCompany from engaging in any private trade or accepting presents or bribes from the native…

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Industrial Buying Behaviour

Industrial buying behavior is the pattern of actions by a company involved in manufacturing, processing and other heavy industry. Many of these companies are required to make regular purchases as a means of supplying their business. Industrial buying behavior is ultima…

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Personal Selling

Personal selling consists of individual and personal communication in contrast to mass advertising communication. According to Cundiff and Still , "Personal selling is basically a method of communication. It involves not only individual but also social behavior …

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Theories and Approaches of Management

Scientific Management (Taylor's Theory): This theory synthesized and evaluates the workflows of an organization. It aims at enhancing labor productivity and economic efficiency. Thus, it applies science, processes and standards in management. Administrative Theory…

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Organisational Development

Organisational Development (OD) is the act, process or result of furthering, advancing or promoting the growth of an organization. Development is the act, mechanism, consequence or state of development, which in turn means advancing, promoting growth, developing the p…

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Operation Management

It involves planning, organizing and directing processes in order to attain higher profitability. Operations management was previously known as production management where the entire focus was on manufacturing. However, today operations management is a multidisciplina…

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Pricing Decisions

Price is the only element of the marketing mix that generates revenue and it is also the most important determinant of the profitability of the business by way of sales volume. It is the competition that contributes the maximum to the importance of pricing. customers c…

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Market Segmentation

A market is the aggregate of a given product. These consumers vary in their characteritics and buying behaviour. It is thus natural that many different segments occur within a market. Marketers usually divide the heterogenous market for any product into different segem…

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Foreign Direct Investment

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is the investment by a nation in another nation in manufacturing or business either by purchasing a corporation or extending its business abroad. Usually, it is through securities and shares. According to the Financial Times, "Stan…

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Managing Technological Change

According to Everett M Rogers, "Technology is designed for instrumental action that reduces the uncertainty in the cause-effect relationships involved in achieving the desired outcome." Technology change rates are at a rapid pace. With the emergence of advanc…

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Factors Affecting Pricing Decision in International Market

The three primary factors that determine pricing decision in international marketing are: Cost of the product or service. CompetitionÄ€ for the product or service in the foreign market. Demand for the product in the overseas market. Also, some other specific factors me…

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Adminsitrative Theory

Henry Fayol of France developed this theory. This approach focuses on principles that can be used by managers to coordinate the internal activities of organizations like planning, organizing, directing and controlling. It explained the process of managing an organizat…

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Entrepreneurship Developement

Entrepreneurship development is the process of enhancing the knowledge and skills of entrepreneurs with the help of various classroom and training programs. The aim of entrepreneurship development (ED) is to increase the number of entrepreneurs in the country. It helps…

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