The Great Plains of India

The great Plain of India is also called the Indus-Ganga-Brahmaputra plain. It extends for a distance of about 3200 km and its width varies from 150 km to 300 km.

The plain was formed due to the filling of marine depressions by detrital materials brought by water. Plains were formed after the upliftment of the Himalayas. It mainly consists of Alluvial soils. Based on some characteristic land features, this plain is divided into the following parts:

  1. Bhabhar Region: 8 to 16 km wide Bhabar lies along the foothills of the Himalayas between the Indus and Tista rivers. It contains pebbles & stones which are incredibly pervious. Small rivers and streams disappear underground on reaching this region.
  2. Terai Region: 15 to 30 km wide belt found south of the Bhabar region is called Terai. It is a marshy tract and zone of excessive dampness with the thick growth of forests and high biological diversity. The speed of river flow in this region is slow. Disappeared rivers in the Bhabar region again appeared in the Terai region, that's why this region is famous for rice cultivation, e.g., Sitapur, Rampur, Lakhimpur, Philibhit, Bareilly region of Uttar Pradesh.
  3. Bangar Region: The higher part of the plains where the floodwater cannot reach. It is made up of old alluvium and contains pebbles and coarser sediments. These plains are less fertile. In this region, wherever the high lands are created by stones and sand, it is locally called 'Bhur' For example, Bars are found in the upper parts of Ganga-Yamuna doab.
  4. Khadar Region: It is made up of new alluvium. In this region, floods bring new alluvium every year. This region is also known as the Flood plains or the Katchhar region. Khadar region is mainly found along the river banks and contains fine particles or clays, so this is a fertile region.
  5. Deltaic region: Excellent alluvial soils formed by river deltas containing mainly clays called deltaic plains. These are very fertile and are suitable for jute & rice cultivation. For example, the Ganga-Brahmputra delta spread in India and Bangladesh.

Importance of Indian Plains:

  • The Indian plains are the base for the survival of India's vast population because these provide various crops to feed this large population. The fertile alluvial plain helps grow crops to feed the population and animals. These plains are also base for the agro-based industries. They provide raw materials to these industries.
  • Because of the sedimentary geological structure, these plains have large deposits of fossil fuels. Road and rail transport can be developed relatively quickly in this region due to its low slope gradient.

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