Human Development Report (HDR)

  • Human Development Report (HDR) is brought up by the UNDP every calendar year, whereas the World Development Report is brought up by the World Bank every financial year.
  • HDR is based on the Human Development Index which was for the first time given by Mahbub-ul-Haq of Pakistan in 1990, in partnership with Indian Economist, Amartya Sen. The first HDR was published in 1990.
  • HDR brings various indices:
    1. HDI (Human Development Index) - introduced in HDR 1990.
    2. GDI (Gender-Related Development Index) - was introduced in HDR 1995.
    3. GEM (Gender Empowerment Measures) - introduced in HDR 1995.
    4. HPI (Human Poverty Index) - was introduced in 1997.
    5. TAI (Technology Achievement Index) - Introduced in 2001.

HDR Indices:

  • The HDI measures the average achievement in a country in three basic dimensions of human development:
    1. A long and healthy life, as measured by life expectancy at birth.
    2. Knowledge, as measured by the adult literacy rate (with two-thirds weight) and the combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ratio (with one-third weight).
    3. A decent standard of living, as measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita at Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in USD (US Dollar).
  • Human Poverty is primarily a denial of choices and opportunities for living a life one has reason to value. Lack of income a life one has a reason for value. Lack of income is therefore far too narrow to serve as a holistic indicator. As a result, a broader measure was devised in order to capture the many, but not exhaustive, dimensions of human poverty. The HPI-1 - human poverty index for developing countries, measures human deprivation in the same aspects of human development as the HPI-2 - human poverty index for developed countries and includes in addition to the three dimensions in HPI-1, social exclusion.
  • The Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) is a composite index that measures human development in the same dimensions as the HDI while adjusting for gender equality in those basic dimensions.
  • Human Development Report 2010 will feature the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) which was developed by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) with UNDP support. This report is expected to be released in November 2010.


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