The Peninsular Plateau of India

The Peninsular Plateau is a part of the ancient Gondwanaland and is in triangular shape. This plateau average height is between 600 to 900 m. It extends from alluvial plains of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar towards south and encompasses whole of the peninsula.

Important Ranges in Peninsular Plateau
  • The Aravali range: It is one of the oldest mountain ranges of the world of pre-cambrian period and is about 700 km long. It compares with applications mountain of USA. Aravalis are under the process of erosion and are called Relict mountains. It is also known as 'museum of minerals' because majority of minerals are found here. It extends from Gujarat to Delhi and its last extension is Raisina hills in Delhi, over which Rashtrapati Bhavan is located.
  • Gir mountains: These are located in Kathiawar region in Gujarat. This region is famous for Asiatic lions (Gir Lions).

Western Ghats (Sahyadris):
  • The Western Ghats extends from the mount of the river Tapi to the Cape of Kanyakumari for a distance of 1600 km. Its average height is 1200 m. It is not real hill range, rather it is a rift side in the peninsular plateau.
  • The height of the western ghats increases from North to South whereas height of the Eastern Ghats increases from South to North. western Ghats are also more continuous than Eastern Ghats. There are several hills located on western ghats are the following:
    1. Nilgiri Hills: Nilgiri hills of India are blocked mountains which are also known as "Blue Mountains". Itlies in Tamil Nadu region and its highest peak is Doda betta (2637 m). The famous torist place Udhagamandalam (Ooty) is situated in the Nilgiri.
    2. Annamalai Hills: The Annamalai hills are located south to the Nilgiri hills, whose highest point is Anaimudi (2695 m) which is also the highest peak in western ghats (or in entire South India).
    3. Cardamom Hills: it is southernmost hill range in India. Shenkotta gap is located in it.

Eastern Ghats:
  • These are located along east cost in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh & Odisha. The average height of the eastern ghats is 600 m. There are several hills located in eastern ghats are the following:
  • Stanley Shevaroy Hills: Stanley Shevaroy hills are located in Tamil Nadu.
  • Javadi Hills: Javadi Hills are also located in Tamil Nadu.
  • Palkonda Range: Palkonda Range is located in Andhra Pradesh and famous Tirupati Temple on Tirumala hills lie on it.
  • Nallamala Hills: Nallamala Hills are also located in Andhra Pradesh.
  • Vindhyan Range: Vindhyan Range forms flanks towards Uttar Pradesh between Narmada and Son rivers. It lies in Madhya Pradesh and Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh. It is situated to the south of the Malwa Plateaus and separates the North India from the South India. It average height is 700-1200 m. It is called as Block Mountains.
  • Satpura Range: It lies in Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. The Satpura range is an example of block mountains having the famous rift valley of Narmada and Tapti on its either sides. It is situated to the south of and parallel to the Vindhyan range. The highest point of Saatpura hills is Dhoopagrah (1350 m), near Panchamarhi (Madhya Pradesh). It is called as sunset point.
  • Ajanta and Satmal: Ajanta and Satmala are located in Maharshtra.
  • Mahadeo hills: Mahadeo hills are located in Madhya Pradesh.
  • Harishchandra hills: Harishchandra hills are located in Madhya Pradesh.
  • Balaghat hills: Blaghat hills are located in Maharshtra, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.
  • Rajmahal hills: Rajamahal hills are located in Jharkhand and West Bengal region. Highest peak of Rajmahal hills is Parasanth in Jharkand, a famous Jain Temple is located here.

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