The Peninsular Plateau of India

The Peninsular Plateau of India is a part of the ancient Gondwanaland and is in a triangular shape. This plateau average height is between 600 to 900 m. It extends from the alluvial plains of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar towards the south and encompasses the whole of the peninsula.

Important Ranges in Peninsular Plateau
  • The Aravali range: It is one of the oldest mountain ranges in the world during the pre-Cambrian period and is about 700 km long. It compares with applications mountain of USA. Aravalis are under the process of erosion and are called Relict mountains. It is also known as the 'museum of minerals' because the majority of minerals are found here. It extends from Gujarat to Delhi and its last extension is Raisina hills in Delhi, over which Rashtrapati Bhavan is located.
  • Gir mountains: These are located in the Kathiawar region in Gujarat. This region is famous for Asiatic lions (Gir Lions).

Western Ghats (Sahyadris):
  • The Western Ghats extends from the mount of the river Tapi to the Cape of Kanyakumari for a distance of 1600 km. Its average height is 1200 m. It is not a real hill range, rather it is a rift side in the peninsular plateau.
  • The height of the western ghats increases from North to South whereas the height of the Eastern Ghats increases from South to North. western Ghats are also more continuous than the Eastern Ghats. There are several hills located in western ghats following:
    1. Nilgiri Hills: Nilgiri hills of India are blocked mountains that are also known as the "Blue Mountains". It lies in the Tamil Nadu region and its highest peak is Doda betta (2637 m). The famous tourist place Udhagamandalam (Ooty) is situated in Nilgiri.
    2. Annamalai Hills: The Annamalai hills are located south of the Nilgiri hills, whose highest point is Anaimudi (2695 m) which is also the highest peak in western ghats (or in entire South India).
    3. Cardamom Hills: it is the southernmost hill range in India. Shenkotta gap is located in it.

Eastern Ghats:
  • These are located along the east coast of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh & Odisha. The average height of the eastern ghats is 600 m. There are several hills located in eastern ghats following:
  • Stanley Shevaroy Hills: Stanley Shevaroy hills are located in Tamil Nadu.
  • Javadi Hills: Javadi Hills is also located in Tamil Nadu.
  • Palkonda Range: Palkonda Range is located in Andhra Pradesh and the famous Tirupati Temple on Tirumala hills lies on it.
  • Nallamala Hills: Nallamala Hills is also located in Andhra Pradesh.
  • Vindhyan Range: Vindhyan Range forms flanks towards Uttar Pradesh between Narmada and Son rivers. It lies in Madhya Pradesh and the Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh. It is situated to the south of the Malwa Plateaus and separates North India from South India. Its average height is 700-1200 m. It is called Block Mountains.
  • Satpura Range: It lies in Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. The Satpura range is an example of block mountains having the famous rift valley of Narmada and Tapti on either side. It is situated to the south of and parallels to the Vindhyan range. The highest point of Satpura hills is Dhoopagrah (1350 m), near Panchamarhi (Madhya Pradesh). It is called a sunset point.
  • Ajanta and Satmal: Ajanta and Satmala are located in Maharshtra.
  • Mahadeo Hills: Mahadeo hills are located in Madhya Pradesh.
  • Harishchandra hills: Harishchandra hills are located in Madhya Pradesh.
  • Balaghat hills: Blaghat hills are located in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.
  • Rajmahal hills: Rajamahal hills are located in Jharkhand and West Bengal region. The highest peak of Rajmahal hills is Parasanth in Jharkand, a famous Jain Temple is located here.

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